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Plantar Fasciitis
Experienced as heel pain when you take your first steps after getting out of bed or after sitting for a long period of time, plantar fasciitis is a running injury most frequently caused by an abnormal motion of the foot or too-tight calf muscles. Normally, while walking or during long-distance running, your foot will strike the ground on the heel, then roll forward toward your toes and inward to the arch, this is called pronation. Excessive pronation can cause Plantar Fasciitis and is usually corrected with an orthotic and calf stretches before and after running.

An incidental finding associated with this condition is a heel spur, a small bony calcification, on the calcaneus heel bone, in which case it is the underlying condition, and not the spur itself, which produces the pain.

Sometimes ball-of-foot pain is mistakenly assumed to be derived from plantar fasciitis. A dull pain or numbness in the metatarsal region of the foot could instead be metatarsalgia, also called capsulitis.

Treatment
Treatment options for plantar fasciitis include rest, massage therapy, stretching, weight loss, night splints, motion control running shoes, physical therapy, Cold therapy, orthotics, anti-inflammatory medications, injection of corticosteroids and surgery in refractory cases. Also, in some cases, massaging of the inflamed location serves as a temporary relief for an extended period of time.

Surgery
Surgery carries the risk of nerve injury, infection, rupture of the plantar fascia, and failure to improve the pain. Traditional surgical procedures, such as plantar fascia release, are a last resort, and often lead to further complications such as a lowering of the arch and pain in the supero-lateral side of the foot due to compression of the cuboid bone. This will allow decompression of the nearby FDB muscle belly that is inflamed, yet does not fix the underlying problem. This allows more space for the inflamed muscle belly, thus, relieving pain/pressure. An ultrasound-guided needle fasciotomy can be used as a minimally invasive surgical intervention for plantar fasciitis. A needle is inserted into the plantar fascia and moved back and forwards to disrupt the fibrous tissue.

  

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